Sport refers to any type of sport or game that aims to use, maintain or improve fitness and athletic abilities, in addition to providing enjoyment for the players and, in some cases entertainers to the spectators. In the case of informal or structured participation can improve the physical condition of a person. Hundreds of sports exist in all forms, from the ones that are played between just a few contestants to those that involve hundreds of simultaneous players, either in teams or competing as individuals. For certain sports, such as racing, a lot of contestants participate simultaneously or in a series and with a single winner. In other sports, the contest (a match) involves two teams in which each is trying to surpass the other. Some sports allow the possibility of a "tie" or "draw" where there is no one winner. Others allow tie-breaking to ensure the winner is one and the loser. Some contests could be held during a tournament that result in a winner. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season. They are then followed in a few instances by playoffs.
It is generally regarded as the practice of physical strength or physical dexterity which is why major competitions like the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition. Other organisations, such as the Council of Europe, preclude activities without a physical element from being classified as sports. But, there are many sports that are competitive but not physical activities have been recognized as mind sports. In fact, the International Olympic Committee (through ARISF) recognizes both chess and bridge as bona fide sport, as well as Sport Accord is the world's largest sports federation , recognizes five physical sports that aren't physically based including bridge, chess, draughts (checkers) Go, draughts, and xiangqi. They also limit the number of mind-based games that can be classified as sports.
The rules of sport are usually rules or customs that are designed to ensure fair competition and to ensure that the winner is a fair adjudication. What counts as winning is determined by physical elements like scoring goals or crossing a line first. It is also judged by the judges who are scoring elements of the athletic performance, including scores that are objective or subjective, like artistic impression or technical performance.
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The performance records of athletes are frequently maintained, and in the case of popular sports, these records can be reported widely in sport news. Sport is also a key source of entertainment for people who don't participate in the form of spectator sports, drawing huge crowds to sporting venues, as well as reaching wider audiences through broadcasting. The betting on sport is in some cases severely regulated, and at times, central to the sport.
As per A.T. Kearney, a consulting firm, the world's sporting sector is worth $620 billion by the year 2013. The most widely accessible and practised game is running. Likewise, association football is by far the most well-known spectator sport.
Structures and artifacts suggest that sports were popular played in China at the time of 2000 BC. Gymnastics is believed to have been prevalent in China's history from the beginning. Monuments to the Pharaohs demonstrate that a variety of sports, including fishing and swimming were well-developed , and were regulated millennia back in the time of ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports were javelin throwing and high jump and wrestling. The earliest Persian sports , such as the traditional Iranian the martial art Zoorkhaneh were closely linked to war skills. Other sports that were developed in the earliest times of Persia include jousting, polo and jousting.
Motorized sports have been around since the dawn of the modern era.
Swimming enthusiasts perform squats during warm-up exercise prior to entering the pool on an U.S. military base, 2011.
A wide range of sports were already established by the time at the end of Ancient Greece as well as the culture of military and the expansion of sport in Greece significantly influenced each other. Sports became such a major element of their culture that the Greeks developed and organized the Olympic Games, which in time past were held every 4 years at a tiny village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia.
Sports have become more organized and regulated since the time of the early Olympics up to the present century. Industrialisation has led to more leisure time, and allowed people to attend and follow spectator sports and even participate in sports. These trends have continued since the advent of mass media as well as global communications. Professionalism was a trend, contributing to the rise in sport's popularity, as sports fans watched the exploits of professional athletes, all the while enjoying exercise and the competition that is associated with sporting participation by amateurs. Since the turn to the beginning of 21st Century there has been a growing discussion about whether transgender individuals should be allowed to take part in sporting events that conform with their post-transition gender persona.
Technology plays a major role in modern sport. Because it is a vital component of some activities (such for motorsport) as well as being used in other sports to enhance performance. Some sports also use it to aid in off-field decision making.
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Sports science is an incredibly popular academic disciplinethat is applicable to areas including performance of athletes, such as using video analysis to refine technique, or to gear, such as improved running shoes or competitive swimwear. Sports engineering emerged as a field in 1998 and has increasing attention not just on the design of materials, but also the application of technology in sports starting from analytics and big details to wearable devices. To regulate the effect technologies on fairness, governing institutions often have specific rules in order to limit the influence of technological advantages between athletes. For example, in 2010 swimming suits that had no textiles, but full body, were restricted by FINA, as they were improving the performance of swimmers.
The development of technology has also allowed many of the decisions in sports matches to be taken or reviewed off-field with a different official making instant replays of decisions. In some sports, players are now able to contest decisions made by officials. In Association football goal-line technology takes the decision on whether a ball was able to cross the goalline or not. The technology is not compulsory and was only used during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil and at the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup in Canada along with during the Premier League from 2013-14, and in the Bundesliga between 2015 to. In the NFL there is a possibility for a referee to request a replay from the replay booth, or a head coach can initiate a challenge to the play using replays. The final decision lies with the referee. Video referees (commonly known as the Television Match Official or TMO) can also make use of replays for aiding decision-making in the field of rugby (both league and union). The international game is when an umpire may request the Third umpire for a decision while the third umpire decides on the final decision. Since 2008 a system for decision-making which allows players to read over their decisions has been introduced . It is used in ICC-run tournaments, and , if desired, in other matches. In the case of the broadcaster of the host the host broadcaster, various technologies are used during an umpire or player review that include instant replays Hawk-Eye Hot Spot and Real Time Snickometer. Hawk-Eye can also be used for tennis in order to challenge umpire decisions.
Sports and education
Research indicates that sports are able to help connect young people to positively-minded adult roles models as well as provide an opportunity for growth and development in addition to facilitating the development and application of life skills. In recent years , the use of sports to combat crime, as well as to combat violent extremism and radicalization, has been more common, particularly as a means to increase self-esteem, build social bonds and give players an underlying sense of purpose.
There is no high-quality evidence to support the efficacy of programs to boost the participation of the community in sports such as mass media campaigns, educational sessions, or changes in policy. There are also no high-quality studies that analyze the effects of these interventions on promoting healthier behavior changes in the community.
Professional and amateur
Women's volleyball team of an U.S. university.
Sport can be conducted in a professional, amateur, or semi-professional basis, depending on the degree to which participants are rewarded to participate (usually with the payment of wages or salaries). The participation of amateurs in sport at lower levels can be known as "grassroots sport".
The growing popularity of sports for spectators as a form of recreation for people who don't participate has made sport an industry of its own right, and this has led to a high paid professional sports culture which has seen athletes who excel are compensated with a pay rate far beyond the typical wage that can reach hundreds of thousands.
Certain sports, as well as individual competitions in a sport are permitted only amateur sports. This year's Olympic Games started with a basis of amateur competition, with those who played a sport professionally considered to have disadvantages over those who did only as a hobby. In 1971, Olympic athletes could be compensated and receive sponsorships, and in 1986, the IOC determined to make every professional athlete eligible for the Olympics except for the sports of wrestling, boxing, and other sports.